The main Jackson Public Library was named in her honor, and her home has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. Navy personnel perform a search and rescue mission in Biloxi after Hurricane Katrina. Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do. After the Freedom Rides, students and activists of the Freedom Movement launched a series of merchant boycotts ,  sit-ins and protest marches,  from to The city was called "Chimneyville" because only the chimneys of houses were left standing.
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They settled in neighborhoods with people they had known at home. The growth of competition from highways and airline traffic meant widespread restructuring in the railroad industry since the midth century. Passenger service was decreased, as people increasingly chose to use cars and planes. In , 11 percent of city of Jackson households lacked a car, which decreased to 7.
The national average was 8. Jackson is home to several major industries. These include electrical equipment and machinery, processed food, and primary and fabricated metal products. The surrounding area supports agricultural development of livestock, soybeans, cotton, and poultry.
Major private companies based in Jackson include Ergon. In Jackson had the nation's 12th highest homicide rate among cities with more than , residents, according to the FBI. The 87 slayings in the city in gave Jackson a homicide rate of But 89 killings had been recorded in with less than four weeks left in the year, and the record would be broken again in with a total of 94 homicides.
In , Jackson voters opted to replace the three-person mayor-commissioner system with a city council and mayor. This electoral system enables wider representation of residents on the city council.
City council members are elected from each of the city's seven wards, considered single-member districts. The mayor is elected at-large citywide. Jackson's mayor is Chokwe Antar Lumumba  D. D on July 3, Jackson is one of two county seats of Hinds County , with the city of Raymond being the other. The larger portion of Jackson is part of Mississippi's 2nd congressional district. Representative Bennie Gordon Thompson, a Democrat, has served since Until he was Chairman of the Committee on Homeland Security and has been the ranking member since then.
On March 27, , Jackson Mayor Tony Yarber issued a state of emergency for transportation potholes and water infrastructure breaks in water mains. The Jackson City Council must approve the mayor's proposal. Calling for a state of emergency increases the likelihood that the U. Department of Transportation would give the city money from a "quick release" funding account.
Jackson is home to the international headquarters of Phi Theta Kappa , an honor society for students enrolled in two-year colleges. It is also home to the fourth largest university in Mississippi and only doctoral-granting research university in the region with Jackson State University. Jackson Public School District operates 60 public schools.
It is one of the largest school districts in the state with about 30, students in 38 elementary schools, 13 middle schools, 7 high schools, and two special schools. A ceremony was held to place a historic marker at the former site of the Summers Hotel, where the Subway Lounge was located in the basement level.
In the s, the hotel added a lounge that featured jazz. In the s, when the lounge was revived, it catered to late night blues performers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Jackson, MS. This article is about the city and related subjects within the city. For the Jackson metro area, see Jackson, Mississippi metropolitan area. For the Kid Rock song, see Jackson, Mississippi song. State capital and city in Mississippi, United States. Images top, left to right: Timeline of Jackson, Mississippi. Civil rights movement and Freedom Rides. Jackson, Mississippi Amtrak station.
For former mayors, see Mayor of Jackson, MS. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. List of newspapers in Mississippi , List of radio stations in Mississippi , and List of television stations in Mississippi. For more information, see Threadex. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 9, United States Geological Survey.
Archived from the original on Retrieved January 31, Archived from the original on July 14, The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Government Printing Office, Official website of Meridian, MeridianMS. Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved June 7, Choctaw Museum of the Southern Indian. Archived from the original on May 15, Archived from the original on May 10, Davis, A Way Through the Wilderness: Harper Collins, , p.
Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society. University of Georgia Press, , p. Retrieved March 10, Disfranchisement in the South, — , Chapel Hill: Jackson's North State Street Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, , 58 and Hughes, Oil in the Deep South: University of Mississippi Press, , 67— Retrieved 10 September Earliest Census to ". Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved May 1, Retrieved August 17, Jackson Daily News Jackson. Kent State University Press, , pp. Committee on Foreign Relations.
Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations. Retrieved September 3, Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved 3 September Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved November 19, Retrieved August 22, The New York Times.
Jackson city part , Madison County, Mississippi". Retrieved August 16, Jackson city part , Rankin County, Mississippi". Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved September 27, Board of Water Commissioners.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved August 12, Archived from the original on May 22, Archived from the original on September 11, Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved August 3, Archived from the original PDF on September 26, Cities Data and Map".
Retrieved May 4, Retrieved November 17, Archived from the original on November 8, Retrieved November 9, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved August 27, Accessed March 3, Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Retrieved June 12, Out-going Mayor Tony Yarber reflects on time in office". City of Jackson, Mississippi. Retrieved April 24, Retrieved September 24, Retrieved May 21, C2 Coast and State. Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on April 17, Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved December 12, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved September 9, Mississippi Civil Rights Museum.
Mississippi Sports Hall of Fame and Museum. Museum of Mississippi History. Archived from the original PDF on October 4, Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved June 5, Archived from the original on August 8, This property caters to a predominately younger demographic or an older but hard core rock-and-roll fan. My wife and I are neither. We booked two nights but left after the We did not enjoy the casino. Small floor with older slots. Need to update the machines.
This HRC is no different than the rest. We enjoyed our visit and got our goodies as usual. It is in a very The Hard Rock Biloxi is excellent all around. Wonderful restaurants with reasonably priced and very delicious food.
Table service is great. Hard Rock Biloxi offers excellent gaming options, Loved this place for slots. The only gripe was the loud drilling while we played slots. Wish a bar was open, nothing but a robot. Tried to hit all of the casinos in one night. Hard Rock was easily my favorite.
It was not smoky inside and had good table minimums on the weekend. There is a casino hopper bus that does a loop to get you around to other My husband and I spent our anniversary weekend at the Hard Rock.
It has always been one of our favorite places, until now. We tried to get the suite we always got on special occasions, only to be told that our information had to go My second visit which i enjoyed with my friend.
Slot interesting items on display throughout casino. Casino flood was not crowded. Bathroom is nice but not extremely clean. Staff was extremely friendly and helpful. Other reporters watched as roving bands of mostly young men ransacked stores for whiskey, beer and cigarettes, furniture, TVs and the like in open view. The lawlessness has only increased since those first acts of looting. More stories tell of widespread vandalism and theft, and some of the thugs are brandishing guns, it is said.
Immediately, there was no gasoline or water to be hand, and the need for these and food has grown by the hour. As soon as survivors could chains-saw their way out of subdivisions or apartments, they loaded up the car and went out to see the damage and to "get stuff. But that didn't stop folks from queuing up for nothing. There was a gas station on U. Separately, there was a line at the front door. Like others, I stopped for gas.
After a while, I asked someone if there was gas. They told me no, and furthermore, that the next closest gas station with gasoline was in Jackson.
The line at the front door was not moving, and indeed I do not believe the station was actually open. When asked, "Why are we in line? I don't know if this is true, but it does seem many of us are prepared to stand in any line - if it seems that we can either be given something or can buy anything. Things are bad and only going to get worse here. We know that and are prepared to live with the uncomfortable state for a very long time.
Everyone wants gas and water. Neither can be found, and with each hour our personal caches are dwindling. But the needs of our people are so incredibly great as to cry out for attention. Medical needs, food, water, gasoline - all are needed, and now. Some say our plight coupled with the unbelievable state of degradation in New Orleans represents the greatest humanitarian crisis in American history.
This has led us to profoundly understand our dependence on others. In this moment of need, we wonder, Who will help us? We are even so bold as to send a message from the lost cities of the Mississippi Coast: Will you help us? The coastal communities of South Mississippi are desperately in need of an unprecedented relief effort.
We understand that New Orleans also was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, but surely this nation has the resources to rescue both that metropolitan area and ours. Whatever plans that were in place to deal with such a natural disaster have proven inadequate. Perhaps destruction on this scale could not have been adequately prepared for. We are not calling on the nation and the state to make life more comfortable in South Mississippi, we are calling on the nation and the state to make life here possible.
We would bolster our argument with the number of Katrina casualties confirmed thus far, but if there is such a confirmed number, no one is releasing it to the public. This lack of faith in the public's ability to handle the truth is not sparing anyone's feelings, it is instead fueling terrifying rumors. While the flow of information is frustratingly difficult, our reporters have yet to find evidence of a coordinated approach to relieve pain and hunger or to secure property and maintain order.
Yet where is the National Guard, why haven't every able-bodied member of the armed forces in South Mississippi been pressed into service? On Wednesday reporters listening to horrific stories of death and survival, at the Biloxi Junior High School shelter looked north across Irish Hill Road and saw Air Force personnel playing basketball and performing calisthenics.
When asked why these young men were not being used to help in the recovery effort, our reporters were told that it would be pointless to send military personnel down to the beach to pick up debris. Litter is the least of our problems. We need the president to back up his declaration of disaster with a declaration that every man and woman under hiss command will do whatever is necessary to deal with that disaster. We certainly need our own county and city officials to come together and identify the most pressing needs of their constituents and then allocate resources to meet those needs.
We appreciate the stress that these elected ad appointed officials have been under since the weekend but they must do a better job restoring public confidence in their ability to meet this challenge. Authorities had mounting concerns about public health issues in the wake of Hurricane Katrina on Saturday as bodies continued to wash ashore after five days at sea and a possible dysentery outbreak shut down a shelter for hundreds. Fuel shortages are hampering supply efforts and causing a breeding ground for disease.
There is no working sewage system. Portable toilets are scarce. People are trying to live in damaged homes, finding refuge in their vehicles and in some cases living with strangers. Authorities fear a disease outbreak could add to the toll of fatalities from the hurricane.
The number of confirmed deaths in the six southernmost counties rose to Family and friends are driving through the streets of ravaged neighborhoods asking the few residents still in their homes if they know what happened to their loved ones. The stench of decay - human and animal - was growing stronger in flattened neighborhoods where cranes would be needed to untangle the debris. Bodies swept out to sea in the storm Sunday are still coming back, authorities said. On the bright side, Gulfport officials reported some positive developments.
At a late afternoon session, it was noted that the Chamber of Commerce has secured Florida houses for displaced Gulfport residents and that a truckload of baby supplies is en route to the city. Water service is being restored neighborhood by neighborhood and power is back on in some pockets of the city. No federal or private relief agency had erected tents or other temporary housing for the homeless, and officials across the Coast criticized the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Keesler Air Force Base for not doing enough.
Unofficial damage estimates indicated that 75 percent of all structures in the three Coast counties sustained damage, according to information from a morning briefing with relief agencies. The Interstate bridge over the Back Bay of Biloxi has been reduced to one lane in each direction due to cracks detected under the northbound lanes. Motorists are advised to avoid the highway.
The shelter with the suspected dysentery outbreak has lacked functioning plumbing for five days. Hundreds of people stayed there after the storm. Eight buses arrived at Michele Seventh Grade School around 1 p. Many who have spent the week at the shelter were walking around town, unaware of the urgent shutdown.
Families were split up; those left at the shelter debated whether to evacuate. Coastwide, there is no functioning plumbing in most neighborhoods and portable toilets are scarce. Officials reported trunks with supplies for the Biloxi area stranded without fuel in or near Meridian, about a four-hour drive from Gulfport, according to Stephen Peranich, chief of staff for U. Peranich said he spoke Saturday with a federal emergency relief staffer the declined to name.
The Red Cross faced the possibility of parking its supply trucks until more fuel arrives. Mississippi Public Broadcasting, a key source of news and critical information for many throughout the state, put out an urgent call for diesel fuel so it could continue to broadcast. On the fuel front, the Chevron oil refinery in Pascagoula won't return to operation for weeks or months, a spokesman said Saturday, but it is pumping , gallons of gasoline onto tanker trucks daily.
The gasoline was stormed as a precaution just before Hurricane Katrina struck on Monday, said the spokesman, Steve Renfroe. He said he did not know the volume of gasoline stored at the refinery. Renfroe said eight Chevron and Texaco stations had reopened in southern Mississippi as of Saturday afternoon, and the company expected five more to reopen in the area in the next week or so.
The Chevron Products Corp. He said engineers are still trying to assess the damage to the plant. Employees, many of whom won't be able to return to work until the plant goes back online, can call the company's newsline if they have phone service, he said. About of the company's workers lost or suffered significant damage to their homes. One caravan that did make it to the Coast consisted of eight charter buses with doctors and nurses from Baldwin and Mobile counties.
More National Guardsmen arrived, and Navy personnel continued to provide emergency services, but Keesler Air Force Base still had not initiated any response. No new shelters had been provided for the homeless the day after President Bush stood in hurricane-ravaged East Biloxi and promised help. In terms of the longer term, the government has got the capacity to make low-interest loans and help businesses get back going.
Once the situation gets stabilized, there will be the appropriate authorities to start passing out the forms necessary for people to apply for the relief and the help they can get. The federal government will be providing the temporary housing. Donovan Scruggs, director of community development for Ocean Springs, said on Saturday - five days after the hurricane struck - that this city did not even have a FEMA contact.
We need the experienced show-runners. Mike Beeman, the FEMA coordinator for Harrison County, said Friday that federal agencies are responding to the area's needs but several logistical problems had emerged - most notably the fuel shortage.
Beeman said a task force for temporary shelters had been established. Army Corps of Engineers is also in the area and has programs for people who need tarps and help with their homes. Beeman said FEMA is only a partner in the relief efforts and the organization takes its cues on where to place needed services from local and state officials. The county requested a special air-conditioning system to keep the courthouse cool for the people's needs, she said, but had heard nothing back from the base.
Claudia Foss, the communications director at Keesler Air Force Base, said on Friday that 50 percent of the base had been damaged, including major damage to housing areas. Joe Spraggins, director of civil defense for Harrison County, said the Seabee base in Gulfport has offered its engineering expertise and equipment to help in the Gulfport area. On Saturday morning, Mississippi Power announced that it had restored power to 40, Coast homes.
Company spokesman Kurt Brautigam said it will take "several weeks" to restore power to everyone in the Coast's power grid. Some of the injured and ill were transported from Coast hospitals to other locations after a caravan of eight charter buses manned by doctors and nurses from Mobile and Baldwin counties arrived Saturday afternoon. More than 1 million people from a three-state region have been scattered to points near and far because of the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina.
They're homeless, or jobless, or both; young and old; rich and poor; native-born and those who'd adopted this place. The exodus of those with no homes or jobs - along with those who are just weary of putting up with hurricanes - could be as dramatic as the flight from the Dust Bowl, when drought caused poverty-stricken Okies to flee westward, or the decades-long Great Migration of blacks to the industrial cities of the North.
But there's something about this potential exodus that makes it different. In this case, there may be no end to the list of people and investors willing to fill the void, much as they've done for years in hurricane-prone Florida. Have you seen people fleeing the beaches? Newcomers who were beginning to discover the Gulf Coast and its low cost of living before Katrina are unlikely to turn away now. They'll come in droves - and that could change the social and economic fabric of South Mississippi and surrounding areas forever.
The devastation wrought by the Category 4 hurricane that struck Aug. Homes and businesses all across coastal Mississippi were swept away by winds and water.
Highway 90 look like they were twisted and crumbled by an earthquake. David Swanson, professor of sociology at the University of Mississippi and director of the university's Center for Population Studies, did a preliminary study that shows some staggering numbers. In Mississippi, 80 percent of housing in Hancock and Harrison counties and 60 percent of housing in Jackson, Pearl River and Stone counties may have been destroyed.
Bernard - as many as percent of housing may have been rendered uninhabitable. Two other parishes, St. John the Baptist and St. Tammany, may have had as much as 60 percent of their housing destroyed. Figures compiled by the American Red Cross are more conservative. The Red Cross estimates of , South Mississippi dwellings, more than 65, or 38 percent, were destroyed and 38, sustained major damage.
Add Louisiana to the mix and the number goes to , Government figures released Thursday show , people were thrown out of work by Katrina, a figure that doesn't include those not yet seeking unemployment benefits. Some private economists predict a half-million people or more will have lost jobs by the final count.
The Congressional Budget Office puts Katrina-related job losses at , for the final four months of the year. Add to that the number of people who are weary of dealing with hurricanes and it appears the movement of people will be significant, experts say. He and others from the University of Mississippi have asked evacuees if they planned to return and found that 30 percent weren't interested in going back home.
That's the bottom line question: How many will stay and how many will find a new place to call home? It boils down to: What is built to replace what was lost; the financial means of the evacuees; and, to a large extent, their state of mind, ranging from attachment to place to fear of another hurricane.
Most who left did not want to, said Bill Frey, a Brookings Institute demographer who specializes in migration issues. He said this region of the country is characterized by residents with a strong attachment to place and culture. These are very reluctant migrants. Just over 74 percent of the state's population was born in Mississippi.
In Louisiana the figure is Ties along the Coast may be less strong. Census figures show just 52 percent of residents of the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula metro area were born in Mississippi. Cossman said people will return to New Orleans and South Mississippi if they have a strong social network in the area - an emotional investment.
And that, to a certain extent, will be determined by whether friends and relatives stay. But, as with other large migrations, the evacuees may find ties elsewhere.
Frey said evacuees may move from their initial place of refuge to areas of the country where they have traditionally migrated, and form expatriate communities.
New Orleans expatriates, for example, have a large presence in Oakland, Calif. Other people from Louisiana have migrated to portions of Texas and Maryland.
Emotional attachments aside, there are some very tangible financial reasons that will determine whether the displaced will stay away. A lot of people whose homes were damaged or destroyed due to storm surge did not have flood insurance, Cossman said. They had all that home equity, and now it's wiped clean and there's no one who is going to pay them back for that," Cossman said. Those evacuees who did not have the means to leave on their own likely don't have the means to return.
Cossman said these are the ones who will have a harder time getting back, though they might have the strongest family and community ties. Frey said the middle class and the more affluent are in a much different position.
They have a wider range of choices and might or might not return. He lost his home in Ocean Springs, as did every neighbor on his street. He had all the insurance he needed, including flood coverage, he said.
He's displaced, but not dispersed to another part of the country. He's staying with his in-laws in Ocean Springs. He'll be moving into another house in Woolmarket so he can rebuild - if insurance premiums don't rise too much. We have deep roots here, with good friends and neighbors," said Gossman, who was born in Pensacola and has lived in Biloxi, New Orleans, Slidell, Tampa and Clearwater, Fla.
But many of those who evacuated to north Mississippi and beyond will look for a job there - and if they find one they may never return to the Coast, Cossman said. If there are opportunities for them, they will," Frey said. Stan Smith of the University of Florida thinks South Mississippi will have a temporary population loss, but it will primarily be because it will take time to rebuild.
There were a whole lot of units destroyed or damaged and a lot of people moved out short-term, but most of them eventually returned," he said. The permanent loss for Miami-Dade County after Andrew was 40, residents, of which 15, left the state entirely. That, Smith said, represented two years of growth. It was more than made up in short order. New Orleans, Smith said, is a different case. One of the key reasons is the number of homes left uninhabitable is large - and most were damaged by floodwaters.
Given the contamination as well as the water damage, thousands of homes are going to have to be demolished," Smith said. A lot of rethinking will have to be done on just how to build a city that is below sea level and depends so much on a system of levees to protect homes and businesses. That could mean different types of housing for the flooded areas. Swanson said with every emigration others flow in to replace them.
But past ones did not involve anything like a rush. Any vacuum caused on the Gulf Coast may be quite different. He said he knows new residents will come, "but I don't know what it's going to look like.
The first to come are the "pioneers," generally single men or men who left the family elsewhere. They come to earn money, then return home. But some will end up staying and bringing their families. One of the most notable groups of newcomers are Hispanic, going where the jobs are and clustering with friends. They include workers from Mexico as well as U.
But there will also be the well-to-do, looking for an opportunity to buy up waterfront property that traditionally is the most valuable. One real estate agent in Jackson County said a New York developer was seeking to buy land along the Coast, including sites to build homes for themselves. It was suggested early on that maybe New Orleans should not be rebuilt because it sits below sea level and the rupture of the levees proved so costly.
But it's not the only place in that position. Look at the Netherlands and Venice. Besides, rebuilding is part of the human condition. It happened in Chicago after the fire, in Galveston after the hurricane and in San Francisco after the earthquake.
The nation after World War II embarked on efforts to rebuild European and Asian cities devastated by years of armed conflict. The rebuilding will take tens of billions of dollars.
And what will eventually rise in New Orleans and South Mississippi will look different. But scant little of South Mississippi's unique waterfront vista is left. For the areas devastated by Katrina, that could include putting Mississippi's casinos on land instead of in the water - and New Orleans can make levees better. Dent likened it to the way a forest fire permits new growth.
Gulfport-based contractor David Dennis, a member of the Federal Reserve Board of New Orleans, said this is a time to put a master plan together that could include everything from height restrictions to new zoning options.
But just how to "redo things right" could be a source of tension between newcomers and long-time residents. There are already early indications the condominium boom just begun in South Mississippi - 65 projects and 11, units on the drawing boards before the hurricane - is likely to kick into high gear.
Two structures on the Gulfport shoreline left standing were the twin Legacy Towers. The sales manager said it proved beachfront condo construction is safe. But that raises another issue: Will the codes and the new buildings make it too expensive for some to live here? Past migration studies focused on the social conflicts that arose in areas where Okies and Southern blacks settled.
This time, how the place they left - the Gulf Coast - redevelops may be prime material for study. Hurricane Katrina dealt South Mississippi a devastating blow. Gone are many landmarks that used to be a part of our culture. Gone are many people's homes and belongings. Gone is much of the history that helped define our region.
The greatest loss of all, however, is the loss of life, people we will never forget our family members, friends and neighbors. Today, on Page A, we begin a series titled "We Remember" to pay tribute to the people who lost their lives when Katrina came ashore Aug. They saw his genius and his skill and they didn't let race cloud their judgment.
He always had white patients. The New York Times reported the Indianapolis native was one of the first blacks to be a resident physician in plastic and maxillofacial surgery at Chicago's Cook County Hospital. He also had pharmaceutical and dental degrees and was appreciated as a "teacher" of many things.
Pointing out the best way to do things was his way. Once Maxey and his wife, Harneitha, retired on the Mississippi Coast, his teaching tendencies surfaced as a school mentor and in local volunteer health programs. But not to be forgotten was his love of music rooted in the Southern black tradition. In a scene reminiscent of old-style comedy, Harneitha Elizabeth Maxey ran down the hill after her son in a runaway golf cart. But this was for real. It gave me a lasting image of my mom that no matter what I did or where I went she would always be there for me, trying to help.
In the Maxeys bought a Long Beach house because Dr. The couple stayed in their home during Katrina because an arduous Hurricane Ivan evacuation aggravated her husband's health. Harneitha, 75, was born in Seneca, S. A retirement became a joke. Recalled Roger, "Every time I came home, she was heading out - the symphony board, the garden club, the book club, the Democratic Women, or just to help somebody. Clare Catholic Church would be ringing their bells, if they could find them.
The bells disappeared, along with the Waveland church, its elementary school and the rectory. The reason for celebration centers on a letter the Rev. Martin Gillespie received Thursday.