Retrieved July 24, Located at the confluence of the Allegheny , Monongahela , and Ohio rivers, Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than steel -related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its bridges. The team was renamed the Tampa Bay Storm. Archived from the original on January 7, Arena Football League — Penn Station Capitol Limited , Pennsylvanian.
The Speed of Sound
Wade decision that ruled the right to abortion was constitutionally protected. Wade ruling if given the opportunity. If we can successfully block this nomination, it could lead to a more independent, moderate selection that both parties could support. Another Jewish member of Congress, Rep.
Ted Deutch of Florida, expressed the same consternation as Schumer. If confirmed, the conservative wing of the court — composed of five men — will be poised to strip women of the freedom to make their own health choices and control their own futures. The upcoming confirmation battle is expected to be as contentious as one has ever been in American history.
President Trump will need a majority of US senators to vote in favor of Kavanaugh to garner his approval. John McCain absent while he is fighting cancer. Two female Republican senators — Maine Sen. Susan Collins and Alaska Sen.
Lisa Kurkowski — have said they would be disinclined to vote for a nominee who would overturn Roe v. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In , French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.
General John Forbes finally took the forks in Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt , named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in to the tribes surrounding the fort. The disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, and killed hundreds of thousands.
During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy , based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix , the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois.
A survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh". On March 8, Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier. On April 16, , the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township. Following the American Revolution , the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow.
One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In , Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney.
Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in , the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion of resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By , glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1, Settlers came via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt now Pittsburgh at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory.
The War of cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By , Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass.
On March 18, , the year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats, that increased trading traffic on the rivers. In the s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine.
By , Pittsburgh's 1, factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, increasingly from southern and eastern Europe, and including many Catholics and Jews. While Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city.
There were active stations of the Underground Railroad in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act , as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From to , the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3, to 2, as people headed to more safety in Canada.
The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand by the Union. He adopted the Bessemer process to increase production. Manufacturing was key to growth of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets. In , Carnegie merged several companies into U. By , Pittsburgh was the nation's 8th-largest city , accounting for between one-third and one- half of national steel output.
The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By , non-Hispanic whites were During World War II , demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.
The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"   was being overshadowed by James Parton 's observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off. Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers.
The "Renaissance II" project followed in , focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the s, but beginning in the early s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring.
There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs.
While , people lived in the city proper in , a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again. During the late s recession , Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Pittsburgh has an area of The 80th meridian west passes directly through the city's downtown.
The city is on the Allegheny Plateau , within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau ,  The Downtown area also known as the Golden Triangle sits where the Allegheny River flowing from the northeast and Monongahela River from the southeast form the Ohio River. The convergence is at Point State Park and is referred to as "the Point. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential. Many Pittsburgh neighborhoods are steeply sloped with two-lane roads.
More than a quarter of neighborhood names make reference to "hills," "heights," or similar features. The steps of Pittsburgh consist of sets of outdoor public stairways with 44, treads and 24, vertical feet. They include hundreds of streets composed entirely of stairs, and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks. Bike and walking trails have been built to border many of the city's rivers and hollows, but steep hills and variable weather can make biking a challenge.
The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,  and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment.
Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on RiverParc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring residential units and multiple towers between 20 and 30 stories. New condo towers have been constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use, increasing hour residents.
Downtown is served by the Port Authority 's light rail system and multiple bridges leading north and south. The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City , and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh. Allegheny City merged with Pittsburgh under great protest from its citizens.
The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass.
The South Side was once the site of the Pennsylvania Railroad railyards and associated dense, inexpensive housing for mill and railroad workers. Since the late 20th century, the city undertook a Main Street program in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation , encouraging design and landscape improvements on East Carson Street, and supporting new retail.
The area has become a local Pittsburgher destination. The South Side is one of the most popular neighborhoods in the city in which to own a home. It collaborated with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development, to include a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and indoor practice fields for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers. Construction began in The SouthSide Works has been open since , featuring many stores, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.
The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods with some apartments and condos. Oakland , heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center.
Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers; it is expected to benefit from the recent new construction of a new Children's Hospital. The Strip District to the west along the Allegheny River is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. The West End includes Mt.
Washington , with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods such as Sheraden and Elliott. Many of Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain ethnic characters reflecting the city's settlement history. Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages, with a more suburban character. Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by more density of housing, walking neighborhoods, and a more diverse, urban feel.
Pittsburgh is also in the Great Lakes Megalopolis , a collection of primarily Midwestern and nearby Canadian cities, reflecting Pittsburgh's socio-economic connections to Ohio and points west.
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission , and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia. As measured by percent possible sunshine, summer is by far the sunniest season. The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh is July, with a hour average of The coldest month is January, when the hour average is Average annual precipitation is For ozone smog pollution, Pittsburgh was ranked 24th among U.
The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey.
Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report showed substantial improvement over previous decades on every air quality measure. Fewer than 15 high ozone days were reported between and , and just 10 between and , compared to more than 40 between and We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more. In the summer of , a crowd sourced air quality monitoring application, Smell PGH, was made and is still used today.
As air quality is still a concern of many in the area, this app allows for users to report odd smells and informs local authorities. The city contains 31, trees on miles of streets, by the last count conducted in Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality, and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The local rivers continue to have pollution levels exceeding EPA limits. Pittsburgh has a combined sewer system , where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater.
The pipes were constructed in the early s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in They have come under fire from both city and state authorities due to alleged mismanagement. At the Census, there were , people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8. Non-Hispanic Whites were The five largest European ethnic groups in the city are German Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian-American communities in the nation,  the fifth-largest Ukrainian community.
According to a ARDA study, residents include , "Catholics"; , "Mainline Protestants"; , "Evangelical Protestants;" 20, "Black Protestants;" and 16, "Orthodox Christians," with , listed as "unclaimed" and 16, as "other" in the metro area.
There were , households, out of which The average household size was 2. In the city, the population was spread out, with The median age was 36 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were In a study, Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.
The metro area has shown greater residential racial integration during the last 30 years. The census ranked 18 other U. Pittsburgh has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and electronics industries. The region has shifted to high technology, robotics , health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology , finance, education, and services. Google has research and technology offices in a refurbished — Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square.
The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center , with 48, employees. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: Education is a major economic driver in the region. The largest single employer in education is the University of Pittsburgh , with 10, employees. Six Fortune companies call the Pittsburgh area home. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing Dreamliner being manufactured and supplied by area companies.
A leader in environmental design , the city is home to 60 total and 10 of the world's first green buildings while billions have been invested in the area's Marcellus natural gas fields.
Pittsburgh has a rich history in arts and culture dating from 19th century industrialists commissioning and donating public works, such as Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts and the Benedum Center , home to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra and Pittsburgh Opera , respectively as well as such groups as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra.
Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues, and bluegrass music. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. One of the greatest American musicians and composers of the 20th century, Billy Strayhorn, grew up and was educated in Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh has a number of small and mid-size arts organizations including the Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre , Quantum Theatre , the Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh , and the early music ensemble Chatham Baroque.
Several choirs and singing groups are also present at the cities' universities; some of the most notable include the Pitt Men's Glee Club and the Heinz Chapel Choir. Polka, folk, square, and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the world-famous Duquesne University Tamburitzans , a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.
Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States. The ToonSeum , one of three museums in the US dedicated to cartoon art, is downtown.
The Carnegie Science Center and associated SportsWorks has interactive technology and science exhibits. The Cathedral of Learning 's Nationality Rooms showcase preth century learning environments from around the world.
There are regular guided and self-guided architectural tours in numerous neighborhoods. Pittsburgh is home to the popular amusement park Kennywood. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several state licensed casinos. Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa is a recent artist to have a number one record.
His anthem " Black and Yellow " a tribute to Pittsburgh's official colors reached number one on Billboard's "Hot "  for the Week of February 19,  Not since Grammy-winning blues guitarist George Benson has a Pittsburgh artist received such national acclaim. Perry Como and Christina Aguilera are from Pittsburgh suburbs. The city is also where the popular band Rusted Root was formed.
Hip hop artist Mac Miller 's album Blue Slide Park debuted at the top of Billboard's album chart; its first 1 independent release since Dogg Food in Pittsburgh has also seen many metal bands gain prominence in recent years, most notably Code Orange , who received critical praise and were nominated for a Grammy.
Pittsburgh is home to the world's second largest furry convention known as Anthrocon , which has been held annually at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center since The city's first play was produced at the old courthouse in  and the first theater built in The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in , are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania.
The Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theatre companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. New writers include Chris Kuzneski who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his works and Pittsburgher Brian Celio, author of Catapult Soul who captured the Pittsburgh 'Yinzer' dialect in his writing. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,  as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists.
Pittsburgh's position as the birthplace for community owned television and networked commercial television helped spawn the modern children's show genres exemplified by Mister Rogers' Neighborhood , Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
The Pittsburgh Dad series has showcased the Pittsburghese genre to a global YouTube audience since The modern fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre was popularized by director George A. Common Pittsburghese terms are: The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be.
The staccato qualities of the dialect are thought to originate either from Welsh or other European languages. Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities. After placing fourth and first in the first two editions of Places Rated Almanac , Pittsburgh finished first in , third in , fifth in , 14th in , and 12th in , before reclaiming the number one spot in In , , and , Pittsburgh was ranked as the most livable city in the United States by The Economist and, in those years, between the 26th- and 29th-most livable city worldwide.
In , Forbes and Yahoo! The Economist Intelligence Unit named Pittsburgh the top place to live in the United States in ,  and behind only Honolulu for and The city was listed among the 10 best U. Livability rankings typically consider factors such as cost of living, crime, and cultural opportunities. Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other northeastern U. Birding enthusiasts love to visit the Clayton Hill area of Frick Park, where well over species of birds have been recorded.
Enhancing Pittsburgh's livability is the area faces little risk of natural disasters from such causes as earthquake, hurricane, wildfire, or tornado. Forbes ranked Pittsburgh as having the 2nd-lowest natural disaster risk in the nation for Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the rivers or one of the 1, creeks and streams may have occasional floods,  such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan hit rainfall records in Pittsburgh has the most bars per capita in the nation.
Pittsburgh hosted the first professional football game and the first World Series. The city boasts several professional teams and in the city won the Sporting News title of "Best Sports City" in the United States. Pittsburgh has a long history with its major professional sports teams—the Steelers of the National Football League , the Penguins of the National Hockey League , and the Pirates of Major League Baseball  —share the same team colors, the official city colors of black and gold.
This tradition of solidarity is unique to Pittsburgh. The black-and-gold color scheme has since become widely associated with the city and personified in its famous Terrible Towel. Several mountain biking trails are within the city and suburbs, Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails.
The Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or the Buccos derived from buccaneer , is the city's oldest professional sports franchise having been founded in , and plays in the Central Division of the National League. The Pirates are nine-time Pennant winners and five-time World Series Champions, were in the first World Series and claim two pre-World Series titles in and Pittsburgh also has a rich Negro League history, with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them in the s and s, while the Keystones fielded teams in the s.
In addition, in the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh. Since the late 20th century, the Pirates had three consecutive National League Championship Series appearances —92 going 6, 7 and 7 games each , followed by setting the MLB record for most consecutive losing seasons, with 20 from until This era was followed by three consecutive postseason appearances: Their September pennant race in featured the franchises' last no-hitter and last award for Sporting News' Executive of the Year.
Football is the most popular and tradition laden sport in the region. The nation's first professional game was played in the city on November 12, , between the Allegheny Athletic Association and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club , the first pro-team in nearby Latrobe and first organized league, the NFL and their inaugural champions: The city's most popular team is the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers , named after the distribution company the Pittsburgh Steeling company established in News of the team has preempted news of elections and other events, and are important to the region and its diaspora.
The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in , show consistency in coaching only three coaches since the s all with the same basic philosophy and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises.
High school football routinely attract 10, fans per game and extensive press coverage. College football in the city dates to with the Division I FBS Panthers of the University of Pittsburgh posting nine national championships and recently [ when? Heinz Field serves as home for the Steelers, Panthers, and both the suburban and city high school championships. Playoff franchises Pittsburgh Power and Pittsburgh Gladiators competed in the Arena Football League in the s and s respectively.
The Gladiators hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two, but losing both before moving to Tampa, Florida and becoming the Storm.
The team has won 6 Eastern Conference titles , , , , and and 5 Stanley Cup championships , , , and Until moving into the PPG Paints Arena in when it was known as Consol Energy Center , the team played their home games at the world's first retractable domed stadium, the Civic Arena , or in local parlance "The Igloo".
Ice hockey has had a regional fan base since the s semi-pro Keystones. The city's first ice rink dates back to , when there was an ice rink at the Casino in Schenley Park. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team — and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons.
Pittsburgh is a hotbed for semi-pro and amateur teams such as the top 50 ranked Junior Penguins, Predators and Viper Stars, with the Hornets a top 20 team for the last 7 years. The city has hosted dozens of pre-season and 15 regular season "neutral site" NBA games, including Wilt Chamberlain 's record setting performance in both consecutive field goals and field goal percentage on February 24, , NBA records that still stand.
The Duquesne University Dukes and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have played college basketball in the city since and respectively.
Pitt and Duquesne have played the annual City Game since Duquesne was the city's first team to appear in a Final Four , obtain a number one AP Poll ranking ,  and to win a post-season national title, the National Invitation Tournament on its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Duquesne is the only college program to produce back-to-back NBA 1 overall draft picks with 's Dick Ricketts and 's Sihugo Green.
The Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic Foundation National Championships in and , competed in a "national title game" against LSU in , and made a Final Four appearance in Pitt has won 13 conference titles, qualified for the NCAA tournament 25 times including a post season tournament every season since — and regularly sells out the Petersen Events Center.
The program has produced 27 NBA draft picks and 15 All Americans while ranking 1 in the nation as recently as In the National Invitation Tournament the Colonials notched an upset win over the defending national champions Kentucky Wildcats.
Pitt women began play in before being reintroduced in Pittsburgh launched the nation's first high school all-star game in Golf has deep roots in the area. Amateurs 8 have also called Oakmont home. Pittsburgh hosts several annual major sporting events initiated in the late 20th century, including the:.
The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world-title fishing competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in and the Bassmaster Classic in Pittsburgh was in the Limelight with the popular Studio Wrestling in the Fineview section of the city.
It is the only promotion based in Pittsburgh. It operates in the city's Lawrenceville neighborhood. The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor of Pittsburgh , the Pittsburgh City Council , and various boards and commissions. The mayor and the nine-member council each serve four-year terms. Since the s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning, and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts.
The government's official offices are in the Pittsburgh City-County Building. Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district. In , Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn in as mayor at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. His successor, Bill Peduto , was sworn in January 6, Current Pittsburgh City Council members are: They are elected from single-member districts. Prior to the American Civil War , Pittsburgh was strongly abolitionist.
It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party , [ citation needed ] as the party held its first convention here in February From the Civil War to the s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold.
The effects of the Great Depression , combined with entrenched local GOP scandals, resulted in a shift among voters to the Democratic Party. With the exceptions of the and elections where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket , Democrats have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the election.
The city's ratio of party registration is 5 to 1 Democrat. Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district , represented by Democrat Michael F.
The area's largest law enforcement agency is the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police , with close to sworn officers. The city also has separate housing and school police departments. Other agencies also provide police protection within the city because of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries. The Allegheny County Sheriff focuses on jail and courthouse security. Pennsylvania State Police Troop B provides patrols for the city and immediate suburbs.
Crimes of a federal nature are covered by the U. Attorney for Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh annually ranks as one of America's safest big cities, in being named the 3rd "most secure" big city by Farmers Insurance.
More instances of violent crime were reported in 21 of the largest cities while 37 had less. The FBI recommends against using data for ranking. At the end of , the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police reported 59 murders in the city, marking "one of the most violent years in recent history. Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which are Carnegie Mellon University , the University of Pittsburgh , and Duquesne University.
The campuses of Carlow, Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Pittsburgh are adjacent to each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the city's traditional cultural center. The University of Pittsburgh, established in and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the nation's largest research programs.
Carlow University is a small private Roman Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Duquesne University , a private Catholic university in the Bluff neighborhood and is noted for its song and dance troupe, the Duquesne University Tamburitzans , as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy.
Shady Side Academy maintains a PK—5 primary school campus in the Point Breeze neighborhood, in addition to its 6—12 middle and upper school campuses in nearby suburban Fox Chapel. The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh 's University Library System, which rank 9th-largest public and 18th-largest academic in the nation, respectively.
There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. It was established on April 1, , and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States.
The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. There is a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. There are also three public radio stations in the area; including WESA Pittsburgh's year-old film industry accelerated after the passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit.
Romero has shot nearly all his films in the area, including his Living Dead series. The city is served by Duquesne Light , one of the original power companies founded by George Westinghouse. News and World Report 's "Honor Roll" every year since The first military hospital in U.
Starzl arranged the liver transplant of 5 year old Amie Garrison as a UPMC surgery team flew to Baylor University , starting its transplant program. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant.
The campus was featured in world news in for several unique approaches to patient care. UPMC has pioneered several world firsts including the first known cystic fibrosis heart-lung transplant , the world's first simultaneous liver and heart transplant operation on a child 6-year-old Stormie Jones in , the youngest heart-lung transplant 9 years old in , the world's first heart-liver-kidney transplant , the world's first heart-liver transplant on an infant ,  the first pediatric heart-double lung-liver transplant , the nation's first double hand transplant , and the first total forearm and hand transplant , as well as the state's first heart transplant The Lancet published a UPMC study of two 9 year quadriplegics being able to move a robotic arm by thought, to pick up objects, shake hands, and even eat.
Wiring the brain around spine damage to restore arm and leg muscle function was successful using robotic arms controlled via an embedded computer to translate signals near a small group of neurons with needles.