During this growth period, Detroit expanded its borders by annexing all or part of several surrounding villages and townships. Retrieved on February 7, The National Register of Historic Places lists several area neighborhoods and districts. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies and a hotspot for industries such as furniture producers, carriage makers, breweries, glass manufacturers, and others. Living along the shores of Lakes St. A referendum to allow casino gambling in the city passed in ; several temporary casino facilities opened in , and permanent downtown casinos with hotels opened in — Some parts of Detroit are so sparsely populated that the city has difficulty providing municipal services.
These usually occur during spring and summer. Detroit lies outside any zone of lake-effect snow because precipitation-bearing winds off any of the Great Lakes Lake Erie come from the south; such winds more likely bring rain than snow even in the winter, in contrast to such cities as Grand Rapids , Kalamazoo , and Cleveland.
Seen in panorama, Detroit's waterfront shows a variety of architectural styles. Together with the Renaissance Center , they form a distinctive and recognizable skyline. While the Downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes.
Outside of the city's core, residential high-rises are found in upper-class neighborhoods such as the East Riverfront extending toward Grosse Pointe and the Palmer Park neighborhood just west of Woodward. The National Register of Historic Places lists several area neighborhoods and districts. Neighborhoods constructed prior to World War II feature the architecture of the times, with wood-frame and brick houses in the working-class neighborhoods, larger brick homes in middle-class neighborhoods, and ornate mansions in upper-class neighborhoods such as Brush Park , Woodbridge , Indian Village , Palmer Woods , Boston-Edison , and others.
Some of the oldest neighborhoods are along the Woodward and East Jefferson corridors. Some newer residential construction may also be found along the Woodward corridor, the far west, and northeast. Some of the oldest extant neighborhoods include West Canfield and Brush Park , which have both seen multimillion-dollar restorations and construction of new homes and condominiums.
The city has one of United States' largest surviving collections of late 19th- and early 20th-century buildings. Joseph's , Old St.
The city has substantial activity in urban design, historic preservation, and architecture. The Detroit International Riverfront includes a partially completed three-and-one-half mile riverfront promenade with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas. The second phase is a two-mile 3. Civic planners envision that the pedestrian parks will stimulate residential redevelopment of riverfront properties condemned under eminent domain. Other major parks include River Rouge in the southwest side , the largest park in Detroit; Palmer north of Highland Park and Chene Park on the east river downtown.
Detroit has a variety of neighborhood types. The revitalized Downtown, Midtown , and New Center areas feature many historic buildings and are high density, while further out, particularly in the northeast and on the fringes,  high vacancy levels are problematic, for which a number of solutions have been proposed.
Lafayette Park is a revitalized neighborhood on the city's east side , part of the Ludwig Mies van der Rohe residential district. The city has numerous neighborhoods consisting of vacant properties resulting in low inhabited density in those areas, stretching city services and infrastructure. These neighborhoods are concentrated in the northeast and on the city's fringes.
To deal with vacancy issues, the city has begun demolishing the derelict houses, razing 3, of the total 10, in ,  but the resulting low density creates a strain on the city's infrastructure.
To remedy this, a number of solutions have been proposed including resident relocation from more sparsely populated neighborhoods and converting unused space to urban agricultural use, including Hantz Woodlands , though the city expects to be in the planning stages for up to another two years. Public funding and private investment have also been made with promises to rehabilitate neighborhoods.
In the United States Census , the city had , residents, ranking it the 18th most populous city in the United States. Of the large shrinking cities of the United States , Detroit has had the most dramatic decline in population of the past 60 years down 1,, and the second largest percentage decline down Louis, Missouri 's The population collapse has resulted in large numbers of abandoned homes and commercial buildings, and areas of the city hit hard by urban decay.
Detroit's , residents represent , households, and , families residing in the city. The population density was 5, There were , housing units at an average density of 2, Housing density has declined.
The city has demolished thousands of Detroit's abandoned houses, planting some areas and in others allowing the growth of urban prairie. Of the , households, Average household size was 2. There is a wide distribution of age in the city, with The median age was 31 years.
For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The loss of industrial and working-class jobs in the city has resulted in high rates of poverty and associated problems. Of every three Detroit residents, one lives in poverty. Luke Bergmann, author of Getting Ghost: Two Young Lives and the Struggle for the Soul of an American City , said in , "Detroit is now one of the poorest big cities in the country.
Out of the total population, Oakland County in Metro Detroit, once rated amongst the wealthiest US counties per household, is no longer shown in the top 25 listing of Forbes magazine. But internal county statistical methods—based on measuring per capita income for counties with more than one million residents—show that Oakland is still within the top 12, slipping from the 4th-most affluent such county in the U.
In , fewer than 6, blacks called the city home;  in more than , blacks lived in Detroit. Detroit remains one of the most racially segregated cities in the United States. While African-Americans comprised only 13 percent of Michigan's population in , they made up nearly 82 percent of Detroit's population.
The next largest population groups were Whites, at 10 percent, and Hispanics, at 6 percent. In the first decade of the 21st century, about two-thirds of the total black population in metropolitan area resided within the city limits of Detroit. The city has also moved down the ranking, from number one most segregated to number four. This pattern already happened in the s, when apparent integration was actually a precursor to white flight and resegregation. According to an estimate of the Michigan Metropolitan Information Center, from to the percentage of non-Hispanic White residents increased from 8.
Some empty nesters and many younger White people moved into the city while many African Americans moved to the suburbs. Detroit has a Mexican-American population. In the early 20th century thousands of Mexicans came to Detroit to work in agricultural, automotive, and steel jobs. During the Mexican Repatriation of the s many Mexicans in Detroit were willingly repatriated or forced to repatriate.
By the s the Mexican community began to settle what is now Mexicantown. The population significantly increased in the s due to immigration from Jalisco. In Detroit had 48, Hispanics, including 36, Mexicans. Appalachians formed communities and their children acquired southern accents. In , , Jews, or about 1.
As of there are four areas in Detroit with significant Asian and Asian American populations. Northeast Detroit has population of Hmong with a smaller group of Lao people. A portion of Detroit next to eastern Hamtramck includes Bangladeshi Americans , Indian Americans , and Pakistani Americans ; nearly all of the Bangladeshi population in Detroit lives in that area. Many of those residents own small businesses or work in blue collar jobs, and the population in that area is mostly Muslim.
The area north of Downtown Detroit ; including the region around the Henry Ford Hospital , the Detroit Medical Center , and Wayne State University ; has transient Asian national origin residents who are university students or hospital workers. Few of them have permanent residency after schooling ends. They are mostly Chinese and Indian but the population also includes Filipinos, Koreans, and Pakistanis. In Southwest Detroit and western Detroit there are smaller, scattered Asian communities including an area in the westside adjacent to Dearborn and Redford Township that has a mostly Indian Asian population, and a community of Vietnamese and Laotians in Southwest Detroit.
As of [update] the city has one of the U. Hmong immigrant families generally have lower incomes than those of suburban Asian families. Several major corporations are based in the city, including three Fortune companies. The most heavily represented sectors are manufacturing particularly automotive , finance, technology, and health care. About 80, people work in downtown Detroit, comprising one-fifth of the city's employment base. Ford Motor Company is located in the adjacent city of Dearborn.
Thousands more employees work in Midtown, north of the central business district. Midtown is also home to watchmaker Shinola and an array of small and startup companies. A number of the city's downtown employers are relatively new, as there has been a marked trend of companies moving from satellite suburbs around Metropolitan Detroit into the downtown core. Perhaps most prominently, in , Quicken Loans , one of the largest mortgage lenders, relocated its world headquarters and 4, employees to downtown Detroit, consolidating its suburban offices.
Patent and Trademark Office opened its Elijah J. The city of Detroit and other private-public partnerships have attempted to catalyze the region's growth by facilitating the building and historical rehabilitation of residential high-rises in the downtown, creating a zone that offers many business tax incentives, creating recreational spaces such as the Detroit RiverWalk, Campus Martius Park , Dequindre Cut Greenway, and Green Alleys in Midtown.
The city itself has cleared sections of land while retaining a number of historically significant vacant buildings in order to spur redevelopment;  even though it has struggled with finances, the city issued bonds in to provide funding for ongoing work to demolish blighted properties. Despite the city's recent financial issues, many developers remain unfazed by Detroit's problems. Downtown's population of young professionals is growing and retail is expanding. John Varvatos is set to open a downtown store in , and Restoration Hardware is rumored to be opening a store nearby.
On July 25, , Meijer , a midwestern retail chain, opened its first supercenter store in Detroit,;  this was a 20 million dollar, ,square-foot store in the northern portion of the city and it also is the centerpiece of a new 72 million dollar shopping center named Gateway Marketplace.
It is the largest commitment made to any one city by the nation's biggest bank. In the central portions of Detroit, the population of young professionals, artists, and other transplants is growing and retail is expanding. A desire to be closer to the urban scene has also attracted some young professionals to reside in inner ring suburbs such as Ferndale and Royal Oak , Michigan. Known as the world's automotive center,  "Detroit" is a metonym for that industry.
Live music has been a prominent feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late s, bringing the city recognition under the nickname 'Motown'. Concerts hosted by Live Nation perform throughout the Detroit area.
The city's theatre venue circuit is the United States' second largest and hosts Broadway performances. The city of Detroit has a rich musical heritage and has contributed to a number of different genres over the decades leading into the new millennium. In the s, Detroit blues artist John Lee Hooker became a long-term resident in the city's southwest Delray neighborhood. Hooker, among other important blues musicians migrated from his home in Mississippi bringing the Delta blues to northern cities like Detroit.
During the s, the city became a center for jazz, with stars performing in the Black Bottom neighborhood. According to Smokey Robinson, Strong was a primary influence on his voice as a teenager.
The Fortune label was a family-operated label located on Third Avenue in Detroit, and was owned by the husband and wife team of Jack Brown and Devora Brown. Fortune, which also released country, gospel and rockabilly LPs and 45s, laid the groundwork for Motown, which became Detroit's most legendary record label. Artists were backed by in-house vocalists  The Andantes and The Funk Brothers , the Motown house band that was featured in Paul Justman's documentary film Standing in the Shadows of Motown , based on Allan Slutsky's book of the same name.
The Motown Sound played an important role in the crossover appeal with popular music, since it was the first African American owned record label to primarily feature African-American artists.
Gordy moved Motown to Los Angeles in to pursue film production, but the company has since returned to Detroit. Local artists and bands rose to prominence in the s and 70s including: The group Kiss emphasized the city's connection with rock in the song Detroit Rock City and the movie produced in In the s, Detroit was an important center of the hardcore punk rock underground with many nationally known bands coming out of the city and its suburbs, such as The Necros , The Meatmen , and Negative Approach.
In the s and the new millennium, the city has produced a number of influential hip hop artists, including Eminem , the hip-hop artist with the highest cumulative sales, hip-hop producer J Dilla , rapper and producer Esham and hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse. The city is also home to rappers Big Sean and Danny Brown.
Detroit is cited as the birthplace of techno music in the early s. Featuring science fiction imagery and robotic themes, its futuristic style was greatly influenced by the geography of Detroit's urban decline and its industrial past. In the early years — , this was a landmark event, boasting over a million estimated attendees annually, coming from all over the world to celebrate Techno music in the city of its birth.
The Nederlander Organization , the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated with the purchase of the Detroit Opera House in by the Nederlander family. Because of its unique culture , distinctive architecture , and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century , Detroit has enjoyed increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years. The New York Times listed Detroit as the 9th-best destination in its list of 52 Places to Go in ,  while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in Many of the area's prominent museums are located in the historic cultural center neighborhood around Wayne State University and the College for Creative Studies.
In , the G. Important history of America and the Detroit area are exhibited at The Henry Ford in Dearborn , the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex.
Inside Detroit, meanwhile, hosts tours, educational programming, and a downtown welcome center. Chrysler Museum in Auburn Hills. The city's Greektown and three downtown casino resort hotels serve as part of an entertainment hub. The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than foods and specialty businesses.
Midtown has about 50, residents and attracts millions of visitors each year to its museums and cultural centers;  for example, the Detroit Festival of the Arts in Midtown draws about , people.
As the world's traditional automotive center, the city hosts the North American International Auto Show. Held since , America's Thanksgiving Parade is one of the nation's largest. The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well. The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated and executed by Robert Graham , is a foot 7.
Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the Heidelberg Project in , using found objects including cars, clothing and shoes found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Street on the near East Side of Detroit.
Detroit is one of 13 U. Since , all of these teams play in the city limits of Detroit itself, a distinction shared with only three other U. Detroit is the only U. There are three active major sports venues in the city: A marketing campaign promoted the nickname " Hockeytown ". The Detroit Tigers have won four World Series titles. Two new downtown stadiums for the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions opened in and , respectively, returning the Lions to the city proper.
In college sports, Detroit's central location within the Mid-American Conference has made it a frequent site for the league's championship events. The local soccer team is called the Detroit City Football Club and was founded in In the years following the mids, Detroit was referred to as the "City of Champions" after the Tigers, Lions, and Red Wings captured all three major professional sports championships in a seven-month period of time the Tigers won the World Series in October ; the Lions won the NFL championship in December ; the Red Wings won the Stanley Cup in April Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship of the world in Detroit has made the most bids to host the Summer Olympics without ever being awarded the games: The city government is run by a mayor and a nine-member city council and clerk.
Seven city council members are elected via district while two are elected at large. The mayor and clerk are elected in an at large election as well. Since voters approved the city's charter in , Detroit has had a " strong mayoral " system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments.
The council approves budgets but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council.
The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Municipal elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held at four-year intervals, in the year after presidential elections.
Detroit's courts are state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. The city provides law enforcement through the Detroit Police Department and emergency services through the Detroit Fire Department. Detroit has struggled with high crime for decades. The number of homicides peaked in at and again in with The Murder rate for the city have gone up and down throughout the years averaging over murders with a population of over 1,, residents.
The crime rate however has been above the nation average since the s   Crime has since decreased and, in , the murder rate was About half of all murders in Michigan in occurred in Detroit. The city's downtown typically has lower crime than national and state averages. In , crime in the city was among the reasons for more expensive car insurance. Beginning with its incorporation in , Detroit has had a total of 74 mayors. Detroit's last mayor from the Republican Party was Louis Miriani , who served from to In , the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young.
Despite development efforts, his combative style during his five terms in office was not well received by many suburban residents. By , three major casino resort hotels established operations in the city. In , the city requested an investigation by the United States Justice Department into the Detroit Police Department which was concluded in over allegations regarding its use of force and civil rights violations.
The city proceeded with a major reorganization of the Detroit Police Department. It has been making ends meet on a month-to-month basis with the help of bond money held in a state escrow account and has instituted mandatory unpaid days off for many city workers.
Those troubles, along with underfunded city services, such as police and fire departments, and ineffective turnaround plans from Bing and the City Council  led the state of Michigan to appoint an emergency manager for Detroit on March 14, Detroit is home to several institutions of higher learning including Wayne State University , a national research university with medical and law schools in the Midtown area offering hundreds of academic degrees and programs.
The University of Detroit Mercy offers more than a hundred academic degrees and programs of study including business, dentistry , law , engineering, architecture, nursing and allied health professions. Sacred Heart Major Seminary , founded in , is affiliated with Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome and offers pontifical degrees as well as civil undergraduate and graduate degrees.
Sacred Heart Major Seminary offers a variety of academic programs for both clerical and lay students. In , University of Michigan—Dearborn was established in neighboring Dearborn. Detroit has an additional 56, charter school students for a combined enrollment of about , students. In , the Michigan Legislature removed the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor.
The elected board of education was re-established following a city referendum in The first election of the new member board of education occurred on November 8, Due to growing Detroit charter schools enrollment as well as a continued exodus of population, the city planned to close many public schools.
Public and charter school students in the city have performed poorly on standardized tests. While Detroit public schools scored a record low on national tests, the publicly funded charter schools did even worse than the public schools.
Detroit public schools students scored the lowest on tests of reading and writing of all major cities in the United States in Detroit is served by various private schools, as well as parochial Roman Catholic schools operated by the Archdiocese of Detroit.
As of [update] there are four Catholic grade schools and three Catholic high schools in the City of Detroit, with all of them in the city's west side. In the — school year there were about Catholic grade schools in Detroit, Hamtramck , and Highland Park and 55 Catholic high schools in those three cities.
The Catholic school population in Detroit has decreased due to the increase of charter schools , increasing tuition at Catholic schools, the small number of African-American Catholics, White Catholics moving to suburbs, and the decreased number of teaching nuns.
The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are the major daily newspapers, both broadsheet publications published together under a joint operating agreement called the Detroit Newspaper Partnership. Also founded in and based in Detroit the Michigan Chronicle is one of the oldest and most respected African-American weekly newspapers in America.
Covering politics, entertainment, sports and community events. Detroit has the 11th largest radio market in the United States,  though this ranking does not take into account Canadian audiences. Hardcore Pawn , a U. John Health System , and the John D. Dingell VA Medical Center. The DMC has more than 2, licensed beds and 3, affiliated physicians. It is the largest private employer in the City of Detroit.
Detroit Medical Center formally became a part of Vanguard Health Systems on December 30, , as a for profit corporation. Joseph's, and University of Michigan Medical Center.
With its proximity to Canada and its facilities, ports, major highways, rail connections and international airports, Detroit is an important transportation hub.
Mass transit in the region is provided by bus services. Cross border service between the downtown areas of Windsor and Detroit is provided by Transit Windsor via the Tunnel Bus. An elevated rail system known as the People Mover , completed in , provides daily service around a 2. The Regional Transit Authority RTA was established by an act of the Michigan legislature in December to oversee and coordinate all existing regional mass transit operations, and to develop new transit services in the region.
The RTA's first project was the introduction of RelfeX, a limited-stop , cross-county bus service connecting downtown and midtown Detroit with Oakland county via Woodward avenue. Amtrak provides service to Detroit, operating its Wolverine service between Chicago and Pontiac. The Amtrak station is located in New Center north of downtown. Westcott II , which delivers mail to lake freighters on the Detroit River, is the world's only floating post office.
The city of Detroit has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Young International Airport DET , previously called Detroit City Airport, is on Detroit's northeast side; the airport now maintains only charter service and general aviation. Metro Detroit has an extensive toll-free network of freeways administered by the Michigan Department of Transportation.
Four major Interstate Highways surround the city. I Chrysler and Fisher freeways is the region's main north—south route, serving Flint , Pontiac , Troy , and Detroit, before continuing south as the Detroit—Toledo and Seaway Freeways to serve many of the communities along the shore of Lake Erie. The stretch of the current I freeway from Ypsilanti to Detroit was one of America's earlier limited-access highways.
A portion was known as the Willow Run Expressway. The I freeway runs northwest—southeast through Livingston, Oakland and Wayne counties and as the Jeffries Freeway through Wayne County has its eastern terminus in downtown Detroit. I runs north—south from I in the south to the junction of I and I in the north, providing a bypass through the western suburbs of Detroit. I is a short spur route in downtown Detroit, an extension of the Chrysler Freeway.
I Reuther Freeway runs east—west from the junction of I and I, providing a route through the northern suburbs of Detroit. Taken together, I and I form a semicircle around Detroit. Michigan state highways designated with the letter M serve to connect major freeways. Detroit is home to the only floating post office in the United States. In , The J. Westcott II became a floating post office servicing the Port of Detroit.
Its zip code is Originally established in as a maritime reporting agency to inform other vessels about port conditions, the J. Westcott II is still in operation today. Detroit has seven sister cities , as designated by Sister Cities International: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Detroit, Michigan. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 September This article is about the city in Michigan. For other uses, see Detroit disambiguation. For other uses, see Motor City disambiguation and Detroit City disambiguation. Largest city in Michigan. City and county seat in Michigan, United States. From top to bottom, left to right: Location in Michigan and the contiguous United States. History of Detroit and Timeline of Detroit. Decline of Detroit and Detroit bankruptcy.
Planning and development in Detroit. List of tallest buildings in Detroit. Architecture of metropolitan Detroit. Demographic history of Detroit and Demographics of Metro Detroit. Economy of metropolitan Detroit and Planning and development in Detroit.
Professional and business services. Education and health services. Tourism in metropolitan Detroit. Sports in Detroit and U. Government of Detroit and List of mayors of Detroit. Crime in Detroit and Detroit Police Department. Colleges and universities in Metro Detroit.
Transportation in metropolitan Detroit. Roads and freeways in metropolitan Detroit. List of people from Detroit. For more information, see ThreadEx. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved March 3, April 1, to July 1, ".
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Retrieved September 5, A Chronicle of Its Progress" Page 71, ". Retrieved June 29, Retrieved on April 29, Traveling the underground railroad: From Midnight to Dawn: The Last Tracks of the Underground Railroad. Michigan History, The Detroit News. Retrieved on November 23, Retrieved on September 5, Retrieved on July 16, Smith, The Unsteady March: Back track , Metro Times, Retrieved on July 16, Retrieved July 27, Retrieved July 29, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved April 21, Archived from the original on June 13, Retrieved May 16, City of Detroit Partnership.
Retrieved on November 24, Most suburbanites are repeat visitors," Detroit Free Press. A Local 4 poll conducted by Selzer and Co. Retrieved February 10, The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, Retrieved February 13, Detroit Economic Growth Corporation.
Archived from the original on June 29, Campus Martius among parks that revived cities". Project For Public Spaces. Retrieved August 15, Rebuilding city takes patience, vision — Crain's Detroit Business".
Retrieved October 31, Detroit Then and Now". Archived from the original on August 9, Judge sends a message with year sentence for Kilpatrick". Retrieved October 21, Retrieved March 29, Archived from the original on August 10, And then there were streetlights". The Chronicle of Philanthropy.
Retrieved September 17, Retrieved June 22, Here's How It's Reviving". Retrieved May 7, Archived from the original on April 27, Retrieved September 14, Retrieved February 17, Archived from the original on January 14, The ghostly salt city beneath Detroit Archived July 10, , at Archive. Archived from the original on April 12, United States Department of Agriculture. Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years.
When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks , presumably for stockades. This region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires Ojibwe , Potawatomie and Odawa. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit , about 60 miles to the north.
They settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth. They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the west and north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, and the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas.
The area was not settled by European-Americans until and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War , the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy , fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River. They were finally defeated in at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
This loose affiliation of tribes included the Wyandot and Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in , they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about , but as a temporary stockade.
No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there. The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit , the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River where Toledo later developed.
Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time. The Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan , on November 17, , with William Hull , governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U.
More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of , when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a acre 3. Immediately to the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a slightly different angle from those southwest of it. In , the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in , its Wabash and Erie Canal extension. At that time no highways had been built in the state, and it was very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains.
During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status.
One recounts that Washington Irving , who was traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States.
The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent.
As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee , about 10 miles to the southwest. Among the numerous treaties made between the Ottawa and the United States were two signed in this area: The last of the Odawa did not leave this area until , when Ottokee, grandson of Pontiac , led his band from their village at the mouth of the Maumee River to Indian Territory in Kansas.
An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory , called the Toledo War — , was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie , now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon, Ohio. Militias from both states were sent to the border but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff —stabbed in the leg with a pen knife by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia.
Toledo was very slow to expand during its first two decades of settlement. The first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in It held 1, persons in , and five years later it had gained just seven more persons.
Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between and , ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties remained in the town. The canal and its Toledo sidecut entrance were completed in Soon after the canal was functional, the new canal boats had become too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan.
More boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut than its official terminus, quickly putting the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggering a rush to move business to Toledo. Most of Manhattan's residents moved out by The census recorded Toledo as having 3, residents and Manhattan The census shows Toledo with a population of 13, and Manhattan with Manhattan's growth was on a small base and never competed, given the drawbacks of its lesser canal outlet.
By the s, Toledo expanded over the vacant streets of Manhattan and Tremainsville, a small town to the west. In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. They were faster and had greater capacity. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies and a hotspot for industries such as furniture producers, carriage makers, breweries, glass manufacturers, and others. Large immigrant populations came to the area, attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility.
By , Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio and it added significant infrastructure from its thriving economy. Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century. Because of its dependence on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression. Many large-scale WPA projects were constructed to reemploy citizens in the s. Some of these include the amphitheater and aquarium at the Toledo Zoo and a major expansion to the Toledo Museum of Art.
In , the Census Bureau reported Toledo's population as In addition, suburbanization and highway development drew more established, middle-class people out of center cities for newer housing. By the s, Toledo had a depressed economy. The destruction of many buildings downtown, along with several failed business ventures in housing in the core, led to a reverse city-suburb wealth problem common in small cities with land to spare. Various redevelopment projects have sought to draw residents back to the city.
One popular family destination since is Fifth Third Field , a minor-league baseball park ranked among the best venues by Baseball America  and others. The city straddles the Maumee River at its mouth at the southern end of Maumee Bay , the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. The city is located north of what had been the Great Black Swamp , giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. Lake Erie moderates the climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal.
However, this effect is lessened in the winter because Lake Erie unlike the other Great Lakes usually freezes over, coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. And in the summer, prevailing winds south and west over the lake bring heat and moisture to the city.
Summers are very warm and humid, with July averaging November and December can get very cloudy, but January and February usually clear up after the lake freezes. July is the sunniest month overall. The historic district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the US Census Bureau , the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers four Ohio counties and one Michigan county, which combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area.
Some of what are now considered its suburbs in Ohio include: As of the census , the city proper had a population of , It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area which had a population of , and was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio , behind Cleveland , Columbus , Cincinnati , Dayton , and Akron.
Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as , in and , in In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July estimate was revised to ,, slightly more than in ,  which would have been the city's first population gain in 40 years. As of the census  of , there were , people, , households, and 68, families residing in the city. The population density was 3, There were , housing units at an average density of 1, The racial makeup of the city was Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.
Non-Hispanic Whites were There were , households of which The average household size was 2. There was a total of , housing units in the city, of which 10, 9.
The median age in the city was The gender makeup of the city was As of the census of , there were , people, and 77, families residing in the city. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. The most common ancestries cited were German In there were , households in Toledo, out of which In the city the population was spread out with The median age was 33 years.
For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were In the second decade of the 21st century, the city had a gradual peak in violent crime. In , there was a combined total of 3, burglaries, robberies, aggravated assaults, 25 homicides, as well as motor vehicle thefts out of what was then a decreasing population of , In , there were a combined total of 39 murders, 2, aggravated assaults, 6, burglaries, and 1, cases of motor vehicle theft.
In it had a drop in the crime rate. Before the industrial revolution , Toledo was important as a port city on the Great Lakes. With the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing. Both General Motors and Chrysler had factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk ,  which began operations early in the 20th century. The largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century.
Since the late 20th century, industrial restructuring reduced the number of these well-paying jobs. The University of Toledo is influential in the city, contributing to the prominence of healthcare as the city's biggest employer.
The metro area contains four Fortune companies: Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of glass manufacturing, including windows , bottles , windshields , construction materials , and glass art , of which the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Other offshoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy.
Fiberglass giant Johns Manville 's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey-Owens-Ford. Only the latter still operates as an independent entity.
Toledo is the Jeep headquarters and has two production facilities dubbed the Toledo Complex , one in the city and one in suburban Perrysburg. During World War II, the city's industries produced important products for the military, particularly the Willys Jeep. Industrial restructuring and loss of jobs caused the city to adopt new strategies to retain its industrial companies. It offered tax incentives to DaimlerChrysler to expand its Jeep plant. In , a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of that action.
In , the city won the case by a unanimous ruling by the U. Supreme Court in DaimlerChrysler Corp. Belying its rust belt history, the city saw growth in "green jobs" related to solar energy in the s. The Stranahan Theater is a concert hall located on the city's south side.
The Toledo Opera has been presenting grand opera in the city since Its home is the historic Valentine Theatre Downtown. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a building designed by architect E. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists.
The Peristyle is the concert hall in Greek Revival style in its East Wing; it is the home of the Toledo Symphony Orchestra, and hosts many international orchestras as well. Toledo was the first city in Ohio to adopt a One Percent for Art program and, as such, boasts many examples of public, outdoor art.
He wrote it in after arriving in Toledo with his group and finding no nightlife at 10 p. Ultimately the controversy was such that John Denver cancelled a concert in Toledo shortly thereafter. But when he returned for a concert, he set a one-show attendance record at the venue, Centennial Hall, and sang the song to the approval of the crowd.
Actor Jamie Farr was from there, and writers gave his character the same home town, with frequent lines about the city during various episodes. Toledo is mentioned in the song " Our Song " by Yes from their album According to Yes drummer Alan White , Toledo was especially memorable for a sweltering-hot show the group did at Toledo Sports Arena.
Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo.